A Little History of the Shoshone Irrigation District
Posted Feb 22, 2012 by Bryant Startin
History of the Shoshone Irrigation District
Colonel William F. ï¿½Buffalo Billï¿½ Cody made the area now occupied by the Shoshone Irrigation District (SID) famous in the early days of the West.ï¿½ï¿½Buffalo Bill and his companions were the first to perceive the possibilities of turning the sagebrush flats of Wyomingï¿½s Bighorn Basin into a land of agricultural abundance through irrigation.ï¿½ï¿½In 1899 they acquired, from the State of Wyoming a right to appropriate waters from the Shoshone River for the irrigation of about 60,000 acres of public domain near Cody.ï¿½ï¿½As an initial step, they constructed a canal on the south side of the Shoshone River.
In 1903, the Wyoming State Board of Land Commissioners, with Codyï¿½s approval, urged the Reclamation Service to complete the proposed irrigation development.ï¿½ï¿½The Reclamation Service engineers investigated the proposed project, and to obtain the maximum benefit from the flow of the river, recommended construction of a dam on the Shoshone River at the upstream end of the sheer-walled canyon 7 miles west of Cody, Wyoming.ï¿½ï¿½The Secretary of the Interior authorized the project on February 10, 1904, under authority of the Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902.ï¿½ï¿½Construction of the project began in early 1904.ï¿½ï¿½The Shoshone Project is comprised of four divisions that include the Garland, Frannie, Willwood, and Heart Mountain Divisions.ï¿½ï¿½Buffalo Bill Dam and Reservoir is the storage facility for all four divisions.ï¿½ï¿½Buffalo Bill Dam was completed and began storing water in 1910.
The first lands opened to settlement and also the first to be provided with water in the project were in the Garland Division of the Shoshone Project, located in the vicinity of Powell, Wyoming.ï¿½ï¿½The Garland Division was constructed during the period 1904-1918.ï¿½ï¿½Water was first delivered to homesteaders on the district in April of 1908, prior to the completion of Buffalo Bill Dam. Reclamation operated the facilities in this division until irrigation was established.ï¿½ï¿½In 1926, at the urging of the Reclamation, the farmers of the Garland Division formed SID.ï¿½ï¿½In 1927 the newly formed district agreed to take over the operation and maintenance of the Garland Division and also entered into a repayment contract.
Location, and Features
Irrigation water is released from Buffalo Bill Dam into the Shoshone River through outlet gates at the dam and through three power plants downstream of the dam.ï¿½ï¿½Water for use within SID is diverted from the Shoshone River 16 miles below Buffalo Bill Dam by the Corbett Diversion Dam. The diversion dam is a concrete overflow weir structure with a height of 12 feet and a length of 400 feet. Irrigation water is then transported through the 3.3-mile-long Corbett Tunnel to the Garland Canal.ï¿½ï¿½The main canals of SID consist of the 18.5-mile-long Garland Canal and the upper 14 miles of the Frannie Canal.ï¿½ï¿½Water is diverted from the Garland Canal to the Frannie Canal at a diversion structure located approximately 11 miles below SIDï¿½s diversion at Corbett Diversion Dam. Initial capacity of the Garland Canal is approximately 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs).ï¿½ï¿½The initial capacity of the Frannie Canal is approximately 500 cfs.ï¿½ï¿½SID also consists of approximately 260 miles of distribution laterals, and 350 miles of maintained drains.ï¿½ï¿½The canals and laterals include numerous concrete control structures including check and drop structures.ï¿½ï¿½This canal system provides irrigation service to 36,009 certified irrigable acres for SID and approximately 15,119 acres for the Frannie Division, operated by Deaver Irrigation District (Deaver).
In the spring of 1982, SID completed a $5 million, 8-year R&B program.ï¿½ï¿½A total of 29 miles of laterals were placed in slip-form concrete lining and 81 miles of buried pipelines were installed.ï¿½ï¿½In addition, the District precast concrete division boxes and Parshall flumes for farm turnouts.ï¿½ï¿½Improvements to the 110 miles of laterals under this R&B program represented 42% of the Districts distribution system.ï¿½ï¿½
The district has a 5 member Board of Directors who are elected by the landowners of the District. The members of the Board of Directors must be landowners and each term is for three years.ï¿½ï¿½The staff consists of the Manager, a Secretary-Treasurer, three operators, a shop mechanic, a weed control supervisor and five ditchriders for a total of twelve employees.
Northwestern Wyoming is characterized by rolling hills covered with grasses and shrubs, consisting predominantly of sagebrush.ï¿½ï¿½In general, the entire area of the Bighorn Basin is well adapted for irrigation with a fairly uniform slope toward the Shoshone River and good drainage.ï¿½ï¿½The elevation at Powell is 4,389 feet.ï¿½ï¿½
Large-scale redirection of water by the project has significantly altered a semi-desert environment.ï¿½ï¿½Numerous wetlands on SID have come into existence overtime due to the application of water.ï¿½ï¿½These wetlands, typically water-saturated lowland areas, provide habitat for migratory and other aquatic birds and wildlife.ï¿½ï¿½In addition to the wetlands, fields and drains located within the district also provide productive upland bird habitat.ï¿½ï¿½At the present there is no program to manage the wetlands located on private lands, however, Ralston Reservoir is managed by the district in cooperation with the Wyoming Game and Fish as part of a mitigation for a Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) funded Rehabilitation and Betterment (R&B) project completed in the 1980's.ï¿½ï¿½Ralston Reservoir is a sixty-nine acre man-made wetland located approximately seven miles from SIDï¿½s diversion at Corbett Diversion Dam on the North side of the Garland Canal.ï¿½ï¿½The re-regulation reservoir was selected for its significant wildlife value, particularly for waterfowl.ï¿½ï¿½As part of the mitigation effort, a control structure was installed to maintain water levels in the reservoir year round.ï¿½ï¿½Before the control structure was installed, water levels each year would drop in the reservoir, following the end of the irrigation season.ï¿½ï¿½When irrigation was started the following April, reservoir levels would rise and the nesting sites of many birds each year would be flooded, resulting in the death of numerous hatchlings.ï¿½ï¿½In addition to the problems created for the birds during the spring prior to the installation of the check structure, previously Ralston Reservoir also created hardships for migratory birds in the fall.ï¿½ï¿½Following the end of the irrigation season in October each year, the water levels in the canal would again be depleted.ï¿½ï¿½The depletion of the reservoir during this period of the fall bird migration resulted in a habitat loss that is now prevented with the installation of control structures that maintain water levels year round.
Soils and Geology
The soils of the irrigable area are divided into two broad categories: (1) In the southern areas of the project, the soils generally consist of sandy loams one to three feet deep underlain by river deposited gravels in the historic stream meanders.ï¿½ï¿½(2) On the north side the soils are predominantly clay loam or clay underlain by shale or sandstone.ï¿½ï¿½Depths of these soils are sufficient for sustained irrigated agriculture with proper management.
SID residents enjoy four distinct seasons - spring, summer, fall, and winter.ï¿½ï¿½In Park County the average length of the growing season is 147 days.ï¿½ï¿½The thirty-year average annual precipitation during the irrigation season, April-September, is 5.64 inches.ï¿½ï¿½The mean annual temperature at Powell is 45.6 degrees Fahrenheit (F) while the range is from a low of -46 degrees F to a high of 105 degrees F in 1936 and 1951, respectively.ï¿½ï¿½The middle of May is the average latest date of killing frost in the spring while the average earliest date of killing frost in the fall occurs in the latter part of September.
Each fall SID sends out a crop questionnaire to all landowners within the District.ï¿½ï¿½Of the questionnaires returned in 1999, malt barley accounted for the single largest acreage of crops produced in the district.ï¿½ï¿½Total barley production accounted for 8,079 acres.ï¿½ï¿½Sugar beets were the next largest crop in production at 2,997 acres.ï¿½ï¿½Other crops grown within the district in 1999 and associated acreages are as follows: Beans, dry and edible (2,378), Irrigated pasture (1,775), alfalfa hay (1,149), Alfalfa seed (996), other hay (361), corn (285), wheat (201), corn silage (134), feed barley (193), grass (73), oats (48), garden (47).ï¿½ï¿½
SIDï¿½s operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are based on a per acre assessment.ï¿½ï¿½Each farm has a per acre cost according to the acreage identified in the water right.ï¿½ï¿½The district in 2006 charged a base O&M assessment of $13.10.ï¿½ï¿½A $3.00 assessment was charged to cover the R&B work completed in the 1980's, and an additional $1.00 was assessed to cover repayment on work that was also conducted in the 1980's to Corbett Tunnel.ï¿½ï¿½The district's total annual assessment per acre in 2006 totaled $17.10.ï¿½ï¿½Even though the district recently completed a 5.7 million dollar R&B Project, they do not plan to increase assessments in the near future. Since 1993 the district has not been required to raise their annual assessment due to the income received from the operation of a small hydroelectric power plant located on the project.ï¿½ï¿½In 2012, however, the cost of operation exceeded what the power plant can provide. The district increased its assessment by $1.00 per acre to $18.10. The district also levied a $65.00 landowner fee and a $10.00 farm ownership fee to each individual landowner.
Operation and Maintenance
SID and the neighboring Deaver Irrigation District (Deaver) share the Garland and the Frannie Canals.ï¿½ï¿½By contract, SID supplies irrigation water for approximately 15,119 acres to Deaver Irrigation District, by transporting water through the Garland and Frannie Canals.ï¿½ï¿½Costs of canal maintenance are shared with Deaver paying approximately 70 percent of the costs incurred on the Frannie Canal, and approximately 30 percent of Garland Canal maintenance costs from Corbett Dam to the Frannie Canal bifurcation.
SID cleans and reshapes on average 10 miles of the main canal, 30 miles of laterals, and 15 miles of open drains annually.ï¿½ï¿½In addition, each year an average of 10-farm turnout measuring devices are also replaced or refurbished as needed.
INVENTORY OF WATER RESOURCES
Surface Water Supply
SID's water supply is made up of a combination of natural flow, storage water, and water reused from drains.ï¿½ï¿½The district has a surface water appropriation for 512.94 cfs (priority 1899), issued by the State of Wyoming.ï¿½ï¿½The District received on December 23, 1996, appropriation for diverting water from four drains located within the District.ï¿½ï¿½The drains include Iron Creek (42 cfs), North Buck Creek (14.77 cfs), Alkali Creek Diversion (145.75 cfs), and North Branch Alkali Creek (69.30 cfs).ï¿½ï¿½The diversion rights for the drains total 271.82 cfs.ï¿½ï¿½The Districtï¿½s water supply is further supplemented with storage water from Buffalo Bill Reservoir under contract with Reclamation.
The District usually begins the irrigation season by diverting natural flow early in the spring.ï¿½ï¿½SID then receives storage water when the irrigation demand exceeds the available natural flow. Storage water ordered by SID takes approximately five hours to arrive from Buffalo Bill Reservoir via the Shoshone River.ï¿½ï¿½
EXISTING WATER MANAGEMENT MEASURES AND PROGRAMS
In 2000, the four irrigation districts in the Shoshone Project completed a Rehabilitation and Betterment (R&B) project with a $7.5 million dollar, zero interest loans from Reclamation and a $7.5 million grant from the State of Wyoming.ï¿½ï¿½Under the R&B Program SID replaced 27 miles of open laterals with buried pipe and replaced 9 aging check/drop structures on the Garland Canal along Highway Alternate 14 west of Powell.ï¿½ï¿½
SID buried 22 laterals with either concrete or PVC pipe during this R&B program. The Q of these laterals ranged from 3 to 40 cfs.ï¿½ï¿½All pipe installation and concrete work during the R&B was done by SID employees and equipment, except on lateral C and lateral 8-B, which were bid and contracted out. The placing of laterals in pipelines has resulted in improvements that have drastically reduced the maintenance required for those rehabilitated laterals and made operations of them quite easy and uncomplicated for the ditchriders.ï¿½ï¿½Some smaller projects were also completed under the R&B Program.ï¿½ï¿½No studies have been conducted as of yet to estimate the savings in water gained as a result of the 27 miles of pipeline and 116 measuring devices installed in this last R&B project.ï¿½ï¿½The water gained will be used to supplement the end of laterals that rely on return flows and pickups.ï¿½ï¿½And reduce the amount of fluctuation at the end of these laterals.ï¿½ï¿½
Each year the irrigation efficiency within the district is increasing as district farmers continue to convert their operations to more efficient irrigation methods than tube irrigation.ï¿½ï¿½Many farmers are using gated pipe and a few of them are trying surge irrigation.ï¿½ï¿½There are only a few of the irrigators that use sprinkler systems.ï¿½ï¿½Most water users, about 75%, still use siphon tubes and open ditches for their farming operation.ï¿½ï¿½Most water users realize the need for a more efficient and conservative use of the water they use, there is not really an incentive for many of them to change because of the high cost of conversion.ï¿½ï¿½SID realizes the need for education of water users as to the importance of a more efficient irrigation operation.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
SID also periodically sends district staff to water management training made available by Reclamation.ï¿½ï¿½We also hold annual ditchrider training to discuss water related problems and the importance of accurate water measurement and record keeping.ï¿½ï¿½
In a continuing effort to improve water measurement, the district annually installs an average of 5 new turnout boxes.ï¿½ï¿½Currently approximately 90% of all deliveries are measured.
In addition, in 1997 the district purchased remote measurement and monitoring equipment that allows the district to poll four measurement stations remotely from the office.ï¿½ï¿½These telemetry sites are located on the main canal just below the outlet of the Corbett Tunnel, on the head end of the Frannie Canal, on the Garland Canal just below the Frannie Gates and at the end of the Frannie Canal just before the Deaver-Frannie split.ï¿½ï¿½These sites have been invaluable in keeping track of the water within our large Canals and being able to see any fluctuations that take place any time of the day.ï¿½ï¿½These sites are also hooked up to an alarm system that will call out when there is an unexpected change within the system.ï¿½ï¿½
Improved Water Accounting
In 1997, $10,000 was spent on a computer program developed by RimRoc Computing of Delta, Colorado to improve water accounting within the District.ï¿½ï¿½This software utilizes Microsoft Access to do all of the accounting of the water delivered within the District as well as the billing and collection of assessments.ï¿½ï¿½This software produces statements and receipts, prints reports and notices, such as the annual crop reports and annual meeting notices.ï¿½ï¿½All water orders are entered into this program and it keeps track of the water delivered to each water user, farm unit or headgate.ï¿½ï¿½It will print out a water usage statement for each water user, each turnout, or each ditchrider, for any time period during the water year.ï¿½ï¿½The program also keeps a running total of all water delivered during the year.ï¿½ï¿½This program does not keep track of supply, pickups or spills.ï¿½ï¿½The ditchriders are still required to keep daily records and report them to the office daily.ï¿½ï¿½